GINSBURG, RUTH JOAN BADER

GINSBURG, RUTH JOAN BADER
GINSBURG, RUTH JOAN BADER (1933– ), U.S. lawyer and Supreme Court justice. Born in Brooklyn, the daughter of Nathan Bader and Celia Amster Bader, Ginsburg graduated from Cornell University in 1954. Following her graduation she married classmate Martin Ginsburg, who was already a law student at Harvard. In 1956, Ruth Bader Ginsburg also entered Harvard Law School, one of nine women in her class. During the next two years, she coped with an infant daughter and her husband's diagnosis and recovery from a severe form of cancer while excelling academically in an environment which was less than welcoming to female students. Following her husband's graduation and employment in New York City, Ginsburg completed her studies at Columbia Law School. She was elected to the law reviews of both institutions, and was recommended as a law clerk by Albert Sachs, dean of Harvard Law School, to Supreme Court Justice felix frankfurter in 1960. Frankfurter refused to employ Ginsburg because   she was a woman, a pattern repeated by New York City law firms. She was ultimately hired as a law clerk by a district court judge in New York. In 1963, following her participation in a comparative law project in Sweden sponsored by Columbia University, she became the second woman to join the law faculty of Rutgers University. At Rutgers, Ginsburg became increasingly committed to addressing social conditions that denied women choices and opportunities open to men. Appointed as the director of the Women's Rights Project of the American Civil Liberties Union in 1972, Ginsburg looked for sex discrimination cases that raised issues amenable to change through legislation. She often employed the strategy of using male plaintiffs to show that laws that discriminated between men and women – even when supposedly designed to benefit women – were based on negative and unfair stereotypes that perpetuated the prevailing notion that women were generally dependent on men. Seeking to persuade a majority of the Supreme Court that sex-based legal distinctions demanded heightened judicial scrutiny, Ginsburg won five out of the six major women's rights cases she argued. The Supreme Court's ruling in Craig vs. Boren in particular – a 1976 case for which Ginsburg filed the brief – made it far more difficult to enact laws based on sexual stereotypes. In 1980, eight years after being appointed the first tenured woman law professor at Columbia University, Ginsburg was elected to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. There she earned respect for clear thinking, careful reasoning, and assiduous preparation of her cases. In June 1993, when President Clinton proposed her to replace Justice Byron R. White, she became the first Supreme Court justice to be nominated by a Democratic president in 26 years; she was confirmed by the Senate in August 1993. On the Court, Ginsburg was a strong supporter of women's rights and civil liberties in general. Her husband, MARTIN D. GINSBURG, an expert in tax law, was the lawyer to Ross Perot, billionaire oil magnate and 1992 presidential candidate, for many years. He was an economic adviser to Perot during his campaign. Ginsburg taught at Georgetown University Law School, to which Perot donated $1 million in his honor in 1986. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Ayer, Ruth Bader Ginsburg: Fire and Steel on the Supreme Court (1994); A. Leigh Campbell, Raising the Bar: Ruth Bader Ginsburg and the ACLU Women's Rights Project (2004); M. Halberstam, "Ginsburg, Ruth Bader," in: P.E. Hyman and D.D. Moore (eds.), Jewish Women in America, vol. 1 (1997), 515–20. (Judith R. Baskin (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg — Ruth Bader Ginsburg Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (* 15. März 1933 in New York City) ist eine US amerikanische Juristin und seit 1993 beisitzende Richterin (Associate Justice) am Supreme Court. Hier wird sie dem liberalen beziehungsweise „linken“… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ginsburg, Ruth Bader — orig. Ruth Joan Bader born March 15, 1933, Brooklyn, N.Y., N.Y., U.S. U.S. jurist. Although she graduated at the top of her class at Columbia Law School (1959), she was turned down for numerous jobs because of her gender. From 1972 to 1980 she… …   Universalium

  • Joan Ruth Bader — Ruth Bader Ginsburg Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (* 15. März 1933 in New York City) ist eine US amerikanische Juristin und seit 1993 beisitzende Richterin (Associate Justice) am Supreme Court. Hier wird sie dem liberalen beziehungsweise „linken“… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ruth Bader Ginsberg — Ruth Bader Ginsburg Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (* 15. März 1933 in New York City) ist eine US amerikanische Juristin und seit 1993 beisitzende Richterin (Associate Justice) am Supreme Court. Hier wird sie dem liberalen beziehungsweise „linken“… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg — Infobox Judge name = Ruth Bader Ginsburg imagesize = caption = office = Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court termstart = August 10, 1993 termend = nominator = Bill Clinton predecessor = Byron White successor = Incumbent birthdate …   Wikipedia

  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg — (2010) Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (* 15. März 1933 in Brooklyn, New York City) ist eine US amerikanische Juristin und seit 1993 Beisitzende Richterin (Associate Justice) am Supreme Court. Hier wird sie dem liberalen be …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda La Juez Ruth Bader Ginsburg, en 1993. Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (nacida marzo de 1933) es una jurista de los Estados Unidos. Desde 1993, Ginsburg ocupa un escaño en la …   Wikipedia Español

  • ruth — /roohth/, n. 1. pity or compassion. 2. sorrow or grief. 3. self reproach; contrition; remorse. [1125 75; ME ruthe, reuthe. See RUE1, TH1] Syn. 1. mercy, sympathy. Ant. 1. cruelty. * * * (as used in expressions) Benedict Ruth Ruth Fulton Crawford… …   Universalium

  • Ruth — /roohth/, n. 1. a Moabite woman who married Boaz and became an ancestor of David: the daughter in law of Naomi. 2. a book of the Bible bearing her name. 3. a female given name. /roohth/, n. George Herman ( Babe ), 1895 1948, U.S. baseball player …   Universalium

  • Martin D. Ginsburg — Born June 10, 1932 Brooklyn, New York, US Died June 27, 2010 (aged 78) Washington, DC, US Nationality …   Wikipedia

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